asymmetric encryption: used in public key encryption, it is scheme in which the key to encrypt data is different from the key to decrypt.
modulo: a mathematical operation that returns the remainder after integer division. Example: 7 MOD 4 = 3
Private Key: In an asymmetric encryption scheme the decryption key is kept private and never shared, so only the intended recipient has the ability to decrypt a message that has been encrypted with a public key.
Public Key Encryption: Used prevalently on the web, it allows for secure messages to be sent between parties without having to agree on, or share, a secret key. It uses an asymmetric encryption scheme in which the encryption key is made public, but the decryption key is kept private.
Antivirus Software: usually keeps big lists of known viruses and scans your computer looking for the virus programs in order to get rid of them.
DDoS Attack: Distributed Denial of Service Attack. Typically a virus installed on many computers (thousands) activate at the same time and flood a target with traffic to the point the server becomes overwhelmed.
Firewall: software that runs on servers (often routers) that only allows traffic through according to some set of security rules.
Phishing Scam: a thief trying to trick you into sending them sensitive information. Typically these include emails about system updates asking you send your username and password, social security number or other things.
SSL/TLS: Secure Sockets layer / Transport Layer Security - An encryption layer of HTTP that uses public key cryptography to establish a secure connection.
Virus: a program that runs on a computer to do something the owner of the computer does not intend.