CS Principles 2018

Standards Alignment

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Unit 4 - Big Data and Privacy

Lesson 1: What is Big Data?

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
3.2.2 - Use large data sets to explore and discover information and knowledge. [P3]
  • 3.2.2A - Large data sets include data such as transactions, measurements, text, sound, images, and video.
  • 3.2.2B - The storing, processing, and curating of large data sets is challenging.
  • 3.2.2C - Structuring large data sets for analysis can be challenging.
  • 3.2.2D - Maintaining privacy of large data sets containing personal information can be challenging.
  • 3.2.2E - Scalability of systems is an important consideration when data sets are large.
  • 3.2.2F - The size or scale of a system that stores data affects how that data set is used.
  • 3.2.2G - The effective use of large data sets requires computational solutions.
  • 3.2.2H - Analytical techniques to store, manage, transmit, and process data sets change as the size of data sets scale.
7.2 - Computing enables innovation in nearly every field.
7.2.1 - Explain how computing has impacted innovations in other fields. [P1]
  • 7.2.1A - Machine learning and data mining have enabled innovation in medicine, business, and science.
  • 7.2.1B - Scientific computing has enabled innovation in science and business.
  • 7.2.1C - Computing enables innovation by providing access to and sharing of information.
  • 7.2.1D - Open access and Creative Commons have enabled broad access to digital information.
  • 7.2.1E - Open and curated scientific databases have benefited scientific researchers.
  • 7.2.1F - Moore’s law has encouraged industries that use computers to effectively plan future research and development based on anticipated increases in computing power.
  • 7.2.1G - Advances in computing as an enabling technology have generated and increased the creativity in other fields.
7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
7.5.2 - Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility [P5]
  • 7.5.2A - Determining the credibility of a soruce requires considering and evaluating the reputation and credentials of the author(s), publisher(s), site owner(s), and/or sponsor(s).
  • 7.5.2B - Information from a source is considered relevant when it supports an appropriate claim or the purpose of the investigation

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

DA - Data & Analysis
  • 3B-DA-05 - Use data analysis tools and techniques to identify patterns in data representing complex systems.
IC - Impacts of Computing
  • 3A-IC-24 - Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.

Lesson 2: Finding Trends with Visualizations

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

3.1 - People use computer programs to process information to gain insight and knowledge.
3.1.1 - Use computers to process information, find patterns, and test hypotheses about digitally processed information to gain insight and knowledge. [P4]
  • 3.1.1A - Computers are used in an iterative and interactive way when processing digital information to gain insight and knowledge.
  • 3.1.1B - Digital information can be filtered and cleaned by using computers to process information.
  • 3.1.1E - Patterns can emerge when data is transformed using computational tools.
3.1.2 - Collaborate when processing information to gain insight and knowledge. [P6]
  • 3.1.2A - Collaboration is an important part of solving data driven problems.
  • 3.1.2B - Collaboration facilitates solving computational problems by applying multiple perspectives, experiences, and skill sets.
  • 3.1.2C - Communication between participants working on data driven problems gives rise to enhanced insights and knowledge.
  • 3.1.2D - Collaboration in developing hypotheses and questions, and in testing hypotheses and answering questions, about data helps participants gain insight and knowledge.
  • 3.1.2E - Collaborating face-to-face and using online collaborative tools can facilitate processing information to gain insight and knowledge.
  • 3.1.2F - Investigating large data sets collaboratively can lead to insight and knowledge not obtained when working alone.
3.1.3 - Explain the insight and knowledge gained from digitally processed data by using appropriate visualizations, notations, and precise language. [P5]
  • 3.1.3A - Visualization tools and software can communicate information about data.
  • 3.1.3B - Tables, diagrams, and textual displays can be used in communicating insight and knowledge gained from data.
  • 3.1.3C - Summaries of data analyzed computationally can be effective in communicating insight and knowledge gained from digitally represented information.
  • 3.1.3E - Interactivity with data is an aspect of communicating.
3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
3.2.1 - Extract information from data to discover and explain connections, patterns, or trends. [P1]
  • 3.2.1A - Large data sets provide opportunities and challenges for extracting information and knowledge.
  • 3.2.1B - Large data sets provide opportunities for identifying trends, making connections in data, and solving problems.
  • 3.2.1C - Computing tools facilitate the discovery of connections in information within large data sets.
  • 3.2.1D - Search tools are essential for efficiently finding information.
  • 3.2.1E - Information filtering systems are important tools for finding information and recognizing patterns in the information.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

DA - Data & Analysis
  • 3A-DA-10 - Evaluate the tradeoffs in how data elements are organized and where data is stored.
  • 3B-DA-05 - Use data analysis tools and techniques to identify patterns in data representing complex systems.

Lesson 3: Check Your Assumptions

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

3.1 - People use computer programs to process information to gain insight and knowledge.
3.1.1 - Use computers to process information, find patterns, and test hypotheses about digitally processed information to gain insight and knowledge. [P4]
  • 3.1.1E - Patterns can emerge when data is transformed using computational tools.
3.1.2 - Collaborate when processing information to gain insight and knowledge. [P6]
  • 3.1.2A - Collaboration is an important part of solving data driven problems.
  • 3.1.2B - Collaboration facilitates solving computational problems by applying multiple perspectives, experiences, and skill sets.
  • 3.1.2C - Communication between participants working on data driven problems gives rise to enhanced insights and knowledge.
  • 3.1.2D - Collaboration in developing hypotheses and questions, and in testing hypotheses and answering questions, about data helps participants gain insight and knowledge.
  • 3.1.2F - Investigating large data sets collaboratively can lead to insight and knowledge not obtained when working alone.
3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
3.2.1 - Extract information from data to discover and explain connections, patterns, or trends. [P1]
  • 3.2.1A - Large data sets provide opportunities and challenges for extracting information and knowledge.
  • 3.2.1B - Large data sets provide opportunities for identifying trends, making connections in data, and solving problems.
  • 3.2.1C - Computing tools facilitate the discovery of connections in information within large data sets.
7.4 - Computing innovations influence and are influenced by the economic, social, and cultural contexts in which they are designed and used.
7.4.1 - Explain the connections between computing and economic, social, and cultural contexts. [P1]
  • 7.4.1A - The innovation and impact of social media and online access is different in different countries and in different socioeconomic groups.
  • 7.4.1B - Mobile, wireless, and networked computing have an impact on innovation throughout the world.
  • 7.4.1C - The global distribution of computing resources raises issues of equity, access, and power.
  • 7.4.1D - Groups and individuals are affected by the “digital divide” — differing access to computing and the Internet based on socioeconomic or geographic characteristics.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

DA - Data & Analysis
  • 3B-DA-06 - Select data collection tools and techniques to generate data sets that support a claim or communicate information.
IC - Impacts of Computing
  • 3A-IC-24 - Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.
  • 3B-IC-26 - Evaluate the impact of equity, access, and influence on the distribution of computing resources in a global society.

Lesson 4: Rapid Research - Data Innovations

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
1.2.3 - Create a new computational artifact by combining or modifying existing artifacts. [P2]
  • 1.2.3C - Combining or modifying existing artifacts can show personal expression of ideas.
1.2.5 - Analyze the correctness, usability, functionality, and suitability of computational artifacts. [P4]
  • 1.2.5A - The context in which an artifact is used determines the correctness, usability, functionality, and suitability of the artifact.
  • 1.2.5D - The suitability (or appropriateness) of a computational artifact may be related to how it is used or perceived.
3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
3.2.2 - Use large data sets to explore and discover information and knowledge. [P3]
  • 3.2.2A - Large data sets include data such as transactions, measurements, text, sound, images, and video.
  • 3.2.2B - The storing, processing, and curating of large data sets is challenging.
  • 3.2.2C - Structuring large data sets for analysis can be challenging.
  • 3.2.2D - Maintaining privacy of large data sets containing personal information can be challenging.
  • 3.2.2E - Scalability of systems is an important consideration when data sets are large.
  • 3.2.2F - The size or scale of a system that stores data affects how that data set is used.
  • 3.2.2G - The effective use of large data sets requires computational solutions.
  • 3.2.2H - Analytical techniques to store, manage, transmit, and process data sets change as the size of data sets scale.
7.1 - Computing enhances communication, interaction, and cognition.
7.1.1 - Explain how computing innovations affect communication, interaction, and cognition. [P4]
  • 7.1.1D - Cloud computing fosters new ways to communicate and collaborate.
  • 7.1.1E - Widespread access to information facilitates the identification of problems, development of solutions, and dissemination of results.
  • 7.1.1F - Public data provides widespread access and enables solutions to identified problems.
  • 7.1.1G - Search trends are predictors.
  • 7.1.1H - Social media, such as blogs and Twitter, have enhanced dissemination.
  • 7.1.1I - Global Positioning System (GPS) and related technologies have changed how humans travel, navigate, and find information related to geolocation.
  • 7.1.1J - Sensor networks facilitate new ways of interacting with the environment and with physical systems.
  • 7.1.1K - Smart grids, smart buildings, and smart transportation are changing and facilitating human capabilities.
  • 7.1.1L - Computing contributes to many assistive technologies that enhance human capabilities.
  • 7.1.1M - The Internet and the Web have enhanced methods of and opportunities for communication and collaboration.
  • 7.1.1N - The Internet and the Web have changed many areas, including ecommerce, health care, access to information and entertainment, and online learning.
  • 7.1.1O - The Internet and the Web have impacted productivity, positively and negatively, in many areas.
7.4 - Computing innovations influence and are influenced by the economic, social, and cultural contexts in which they are designed and used.
7.4.1 - Explain the connections between computing and economic, social, and cultural contexts. [P1]
  • 7.4.1A - The innovation and impact of social media and online access is different in different countries and in different socioeconomic groups.
  • 7.4.1B - Mobile, wireless, and networked computing have an impact on innovation throughout the world.
  • 7.4.1C - The global distribution of computing resources raises issues of equity, access, and power.
  • 7.4.1D - Groups and individuals are affected by the “digital divide” — differing access to computing and the Internet based on socioeconomic or geographic characteristics.
  • 7.4.1E - Networks and infrastructure are supported by both commercial and governmental initiatives.
7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
7.5.2 - Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility [P5]
  • 7.5.2A - Determining the credibility of a soruce requires considering and evaluating the reputation and credentials of the author(s), publisher(s), site owner(s), and/or sponsor(s).
  • 7.5.2B - Information from a source is considered relevant when it supports an appropriate claim or the purpose of the investigation

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

DA - Data & Analysis
  • 3B-DA-05 - Use data analysis tools and techniques to identify patterns in data representing complex systems.
IC - Impacts of Computing
  • 3A-IC-24 - Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.

Lesson 5: Identifying People With Data

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

3.2 - Computing facilitates exploration and the discovery of connections in information.
3.2.2 - Use large data sets to explore and discover information and knowledge. [P3]
  • 3.2.2D - Maintaining privacy of large data sets containing personal information can be challenging.
3.3 - There are trade offs when representing information as digital data.
3.3.1 - Analyze how data representation, storage, security, and transmission of data involve computational manipulation of information. [P4]
  • 3.3.1B - Security concerns engender tradeoffs in storing and transmitting information.
  • 3.3.1F - Security and privacy concerns arise with data containing personal information.
7.3 - Computing has a global affect -- both beneficial and harmful -- on people and society.
7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
  • 7.3.1G - Privacy and security concerns arise in the development and use of computational systems and artifacts.
  • 7.3.1J - Technology enables the collection, use, and exploitation of information about, by, and for individuals, groups, and institutions.
  • 7.3.1K - People can have instant access to vast amounts of information online; accessing this information can enable the collection of both individual and aggregate data that can be used and collected.
  • 7.3.1L - Commercial and governmental curation of information may be exploited if privacy and other protections are ignored.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

IC - Impacts of Computing
  • 3A-IC-24 - Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.
  • 3A-IC-29 - Explain the privacy concerns related to the collection and generation of data through automated processes that may not be evident to users.
  • 3A-IC-30 - Evaluate the social and economic implications of privacy in the context of safety, law, or ethics.
NI - Networks & the Internet
  • 3A-NI-05 - Give examples to illustrate how sensitive data can be affected by malware and other attacks.

Lesson 6: The Cost of Free

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

3.3 - There are trade offs when representing information as digital data.
3.3.1 - Analyze how data representation, storage, security, and transmission of data involve computational manipulation of information. [P4]
  • 3.3.1A - Digital data representations involve trade offs related to storage, security, and privacy concerns.
  • 3.3.1B - Security concerns engender tradeoffs in storing and transmitting information.
  • 3.3.1F - Security and privacy concerns arise with data containing personal information.
7.3 - Computing has a global affect -- both beneficial and harmful -- on people and society.
7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
  • 7.3.1A - Innovations enabled by computing raise legal and ethical concerns.
  • 7.3.1G - Privacy and security concerns arise in the development and use of computational systems and artifacts.
  • 7.3.1H - Aggregation of information, such as geolocation, cookies, and browsing history, raises privacy and security concerns.
  • 7.3.1J - Technology enables the collection, use, and exploitation of information about, by, and for individuals, groups, and institutions.
  • 7.3.1K - People can have instant access to vast amounts of information online; accessing this information can enable the collection of both individual and aggregate data that can be used and collected.
  • 7.3.1L - Commercial and governmental curation of information may be exploited if privacy and other protections are ignored.
  • 7.3.1M - Targeted advertising is used to help individuals, but it can be misused at both individual and aggregate levels.
  • 7.3.1N - Widespread access to digitized information raises questions about intellectual property.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

IC - Impacts of Computing
  • 3A-IC-24 - Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.
  • 3A-IC-29 - Explain the privacy concerns related to the collection and generation of data through automated processes that may not be evident to users.
NI - Networks & the Internet
  • 3A-NI-05 - Give examples to illustrate how sensitive data can be affected by malware and other attacks.

Lesson 7: Simple Encryption

Standards Alignment

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2011)

CI - Community, Global, and Ethical Impacts
  • CI.L3A:10 - Describe security and privacy issues that relate to computer networks.
CL - Collaboration
  • CL.L2:2 - Collaboratively design, develop, publish and present products (e.g., videos, podcasts, websites) using technology resources that demonstrate and communicate curriculum. concepts.
CPP - Computing Practice & Programming
  • CPP.L3A:9 - Explain the principles of security by examining encryption, cryptography, and authentication techniques.
  • CPP.L3B:5 - Deploy principles of security by implementing encryption and authentication strategies.
CT - Computational Thinking
  • CT.L3B:4 - Evaluate algorithms by their efficiency, correctness, and clarity.

Computer Science Principles

1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
1.2.2 - Create a computational artifact using computing tools and techniques to solve a problem. [P2]
  • 1.2.2A - Computing tools and techniques can enhance the process of finding a solution to a problem.
3.3 - There are trade offs when representing information as digital data.
3.3.1 - Analyze how data representation, storage, security, and transmission of data involve computational manipulation of information. [P4]
  • 3.3.1B - Security concerns engender tradeoffs in storing and transmitting information.
  • 3.3.1F - Security and privacy concerns arise with data containing personal information.
6.3 - Cybersecurity is an important concern for the Internet and the systems built on it.
6.3.1 - Identify existing cybersecurity concerns and potential options to address these issues with the Internet and the systems built on it. [P1]
  • 6.3.1C - Implementing cybersecurity has software, hardware, and human components.
  • 6.3.1H - Cryptography is essential to many models of cybersecurity.
  • 6.3.1I - Cryptography has a mathematical foundation.
  • 6.3.1K - Symmetric encryption is a method of encryption involving one key for encryption and decryption.
7.3 - Computing has a global affect -- both beneficial and harmful -- on people and society.
7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
  • 7.3.1G - Privacy and security concerns arise in the development and use of computational systems and artifacts.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

NI - Networks & the Internet
  • 2-NI-06 - Apply multiple methods of encryption to model the secure transmission of information.
  • 3A-NI-07 - Compare various security measures, considering tradeoffs between the usability and security of a computer system.
  • 3B-NI-04 - Compare ways software developers protect devices and information from unauthorized access.

Lesson 8: Encryption with Keys and Passwords

Standards Alignment

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2011)

CPP - Computing Practice & Programming
  • CPP.L3A:9 - Explain the principles of security by examining encryption, cryptography, and authentication techniques.
  • CPP.L3B:5 - Deploy principles of security by implementing encryption and authentication strategies.
CT - Computational Thinking
  • CT.L3B:2 - Explain the value of heuristic algorithms to approximate solutions for intractable problems.
  • CT.L3B:4 - Evaluate algorithms by their efficiency, correctness, and clarity.
  • CT.L3B:5 - Use data analysis to enhance understanding of complex natural and human systems.

Computer Science Principles

2.3 - Models and simulations use abstraction to generate new understanding and knowledge.
2.3.2 - Use models and simulations to formulate, refine, and test hypotheses. [P3]
  • 2.3.2A - Models and simulations facilitate the formulation and refinement of hypotheses related to the objects or phenomena under consideration.
3.1 - People use computer programs to process information to gain insight and knowledge.
3.1.1 - Use computers to process information, find patterns, and test hypotheses about digitally processed information to gain insight and knowledge. [P4]
  • 3.1.1A - Computers are used in an iterative and interactive way when processing digital information to gain insight and knowledge.
4.2 - Algorithms can solve many but not all computational problems.
4.2.1 - Explain the difference between algorithms that run in a reasonable time and those that do not run in a reasonable time. [P1]
  • 4.2.1A - Many problems can be solved in a reasonable time.
  • 4.2.1B - Reasonable time means that as the input size grows, the number of steps the algorithm takes is proportional to the square (or cube, fourth power, fifth power, etc.) of the size of the input.
  • 4.2.1C - Some problems cannot be solved in a reasonable time, even for small input sizes.
  • 4.2.1D - Some problems can be solved but not in a reasonable time. In these cases, heuristic approaches may be helpful to find solutions in reasonable time.
6.3 - Cybersecurity is an important concern for the Internet and the systems built on it.
6.3.1 - Identify existing cybersecurity concerns and potential options to address these issues with the Internet and the systems built on it. [P1]
  • 6.3.1C - Implementing cybersecurity has software, hardware, and human components.
  • 6.3.1H - Cryptography is essential to many models of cybersecurity.
  • 6.3.1I - Cryptography has a mathematical foundation.
  • 6.3.1J - Open standards help ensure cryptography is secure.
  • 6.3.1K - Symmetric encryption is a method of encryption involving one key for encryption and decryption.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

NI - Networks & the Internet
  • 2-NI-06 - Apply multiple methods of encryption to model the secure transmission of information.
  • 3A-NI-07 - Compare various security measures, considering tradeoffs between the usability and security of a computer system.
  • 3B-NI-04 - Compare ways software developers protect devices and information from unauthorized access.

Lesson 9: Public Key Cryptography

Standards Alignment

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2011)

CPP - Computing Practice & Programming
  • CPP.L3A:9 - Explain the principles of security by examining encryption, cryptography, and authentication techniques.
  • CPP.L3B:5 - Deploy principles of security by implementing encryption and authentication strategies.
CT - Computational Thinking
  • CT.L3B:2 - Explain the value of heuristic algorithms to approximate solutions for intractable problems.
  • CT.L3B:3 - Critically examine classical algorithms and implement an original algorithm.
  • CT.L3B:4 - Evaluate algorithms by their efficiency, correctness, and clarity.
  • CT.L3B:5 - Use data analysis to enhance understanding of complex natural and human systems.

Computer Science Principles

4.2 - Algorithms can solve many but not all computational problems.
4.2.1 - Explain the difference between algorithms that run in a reasonable time and those that do not run in a reasonable time. [P1]
  • 4.2.1A - Many problems can be solved in a reasonable time.
  • 4.2.1B - Reasonable time means that as the input size grows, the number of steps the algorithm takes is proportional to the square (or cube, fourth power, fifth power, etc.) of the size of the input.
  • 4.2.1C - Some problems cannot be solved in a reasonable time, even for small input sizes.
  • 4.2.1D - Some problems can be solved but not in a reasonable time. In these cases, heuristic approaches may be helpful to find solutions in reasonable time.
4.2.2 - Explain the difference between solvable and unsolvable problems in computer science. [P1]
  • 4.2.2A - A heuristic is a technique that may allow us to find an approximate solution when typical methods fail to find an exact solution.
4.2.3 - Explain the existence of undecidable problems in computer science. [P1]
  • 4.2.3A - An undecidable problem may have instances that have an algorithmic solution, but there is no algorithmic solution that solves all instances of the problem.
4.2.4 - Evaluate algorithms analytically and empirically for efficiency, correctness, and clarity. [P4]
  • 4.2.4A - Determining an algorithm’s efficiency is done by reasoning formally or mathematically about the algorithm.
  • 4.2.4B - Empirical analysis of an algorithm is done by implementing the algorithm and running it on different inputs.
  • 4.2.4C - The correctness of an algorithm is determined by reasoning formally or mathematically about the algorithm, not by testing an implementation of the algorithm.
6.3 - Cybersecurity is an important concern for the Internet and the systems built on it.
6.3.1 - Identify existing cybersecurity concerns and potential options to address these issues with the Internet and the systems built on it. [P1]
  • 6.3.1H - Cryptography is essential to many models of cybersecurity.
  • 6.3.1I - Cryptography has a mathematical foundation.
  • 6.3.1L - Public key encryption, which is not symmetric, is an encryption method that is widely used because of the enhanced security associated with its use.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

NI - Networks & the Internet
  • 2-NI-06 - Apply multiple methods of encryption to model the secure transmission of information.
  • 3A-NI-07 - Compare various security measures, considering tradeoffs between the usability and security of a computer system.
  • 3B-NI-04 - Compare ways software developers protect devices and information from unauthorized access.

Lesson 10: Rapid Research - Cybercrime

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

6.2 - Characteristics of the Internet influence the systems built on it.
6.2.2 - Explain how the characteristics of the Internet influence the systems built on it. [P4]
  • 6.2.2H - Standards for sharing information and communicating between browsers and servers on the Web include HTTP and secure sockets layer/transport layer security (SSL/TLS).
6.3 - Cybersecurity is an important concern for the Internet and the systems built on it.
6.3.1 - Identify existing cybersecurity concerns and potential options to address these issues with the Internet and the systems built on it. [P1]
  • 6.3.1C - Implementing cybersecurity has software, hardware, and human components.
  • 6.3.1D - Cyber warfare and cyber crime have widespread and potentially devastating effects.
  • 6.3.1E - Distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) compromise a target by flooding it with requests from multiple systems.
  • 6.3.1F - Phishing, viruses, and other attacks have human and software components.
  • 6.3.1G - Antivirus software and firewalls can help prevent unauthorized access to private data.
  • 6.3.1H - Cryptography is essential to many models of cybersecurity.
7.3 - Computing has a global affect -- both beneficial and harmful -- on people and society.
7.3.1 - Analyze the beneficial and harmful effects of computing. [P4]
  • 7.3.1G - Privacy and security concerns arise in the development and use of computational systems and artifacts.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

NI - Networks & the Internet
  • 2-NI-05 - Explain how physical and digital security measures protect electronic information.
  • 3A-NI-05 - Give examples to illustrate how sensitive data can be affected by malware and other attacks.
  • 3B-NI-04 - Compare ways software developers protect devices and information from unauthorized access.