# Lesson 8: Nested Loops in Maze

## Overview

In this online activity, students will have the opportunity to push their understanding of loops to a whole new level. Playing with the Bee and Plants vs Zombies, students will learn how to program a loop to be inside of another loop. They will also be encouraged to figure out how little changes in either loop will affect their program when they click `Run`.

## Purpose

In this introduction to nested loops, students will go outside of their comfort zone to create more efficient solutions to puzzles.

In earlier puzzles, loops pushed students to recognize repetition. Here, students will learn to recognize patterns within repeated patterns to develop these nested loops. This stage starts off by encouraging students try to solve a puzzle where the code is irritating and complex to write out the long way. After a video introduces nested loops, students are shown an example and asked to predict what will happen when a loop is put inside of another loop. This progression leads into plenty of practice for students to solidify and build on their understanding of looping in programming.

## Objectives

### Students will be able to:

• Break complex tasks into smaller repeatable sections.
• Recognize large repeated patterns as made from smaller repeated patterns.
• Identify the benefits of using a loop structure instead of manual repetition.

## Preparation

Heads Up! Please make a copy of any documents you plan to share with students.

## Vocabulary

• Loop - The action of doing something over and over again.
• Repeat - To do something again.

# Teaching Guide

## Warm Up (10 min)

### Introduction

Briefly review with the class what loops are and why we use them.

• What do loops do?
• Loops repeat a set of commands. (see vocabulary on command if students don't recognize it)
• How do we use loops?
• We use loops to create a pattern made of repeated actions.

Tell the class that they will now be doing something super cool: using loops inside loops. Ask the class to predict what kinds of things we would be using a loop inside of a loop for.

"If a loop repeats a pattern, then looping a loop would repeat a pattern of patterns!"

Students don't need to understand this right away, so feel free to move on to the online puzzles even if students still seem a little confused.

## Main Activity (30 min)

### Course F Online Puzzles - 2018 - Website

We highly recommend Pair Programming - Student Video in this lesson. This may not be an easy topic for the majority of your students. Working with a partner and discussing potential solutions to the puzzles might ease the students' minds.

Also, have paper and pencils nearby for students to write out their plan before coding. Some puzzles have a limit on the number of certain blocks you can use, so if students like to write out the long answer to find the repeats, paper can be useful.

## Wrap Up (15 min)

### Journaling

Having students write about what they learned, why it’s useful, and how they feel about it can help solidify any knowledge they obtained today and build a review sheet for them to look to in the future.

#### Journal Prompts:

• What was today's lesson about?
• How did you feel about today's lesson?
• What is a nested loop?
• Can you draw a puzzle that would use a nested loop? Try coding the solution to your own puzzle.

## Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

AP - Algorithms & Programming
• 1B-AP-11 - Decompose (break down) problems into smaller, manageable subproblems to facilitate the program development process.

## Cross-curricular Opportunities

This list represents opportunities in this lesson to support standards in other content areas.

#### Common Core English Language Arts Standards

L - Language
• 5.L.6 - Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).
SL - Speaking & Listening
• 5.SL.1 - Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
• 5.SL.1.a - Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
• 5.SL.4 - Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
• 5.SL.6 - Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

#### Common Core Math Standards

MP - Math Practices
• MP.1 - Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively
• MP.3 - Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• MP.5 - Use appropriate tools strategically
• MP.6 - Attend to precision
• MP.7 - Look for and make use of structure
• MP.8 - Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning
OA - Operations And Algebraic Thinking
• 5.OA.2 - Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three t

#### Next Generation Science Standards

ETS - Engineering in the Sciences
ETS1 - Engineering Design
• 3-5-ETS1-1 - Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.
• 3-5-ETS1-2 - Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.
• 3-5-ETS1-3 - Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.