# Unit 5 - Data and Society

The Data and Society unit is about the importance of data in solving problems and highlights how computers can help in this process. The first chapter explores different systems used to represent information in a computer and the challenges and tradeoffs posed by using them. In the second chapter students learn how collections of data are used to solve problems, and how computers help to automate the steps of this process. In the final project, students gather their own data and use it to develop an automated solution to a problem.

### Modifications for Virtual and Socially-Distanced Classrooms

*Are you teaching in a virtual setting or in a socially-distanced classroom?*

Check out this document for ideas and resources to help you tailor common practices like *Think Pair Share* or *Peer Feedback* to your learning environment.

## Chapter 1: Representing Information

### Big Questions

- Why is representation important in problem solving?
- What features does a representation system need to be useful?
- What is necessary to create usable binary representation systems?
- How can we combine systems together to get more complex information?

## Week 1

### Lesson 1: Representation Matters

#### Unplugged

- Warm Up (10 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (5 mins)

This first lesson provides an overview of what data is and how it is used to solve problems. Groups use a data set to make a series of meal recommendations for people with various criteria. Afterward, groups compare their responses and discuss how the different representations of the meal data affected how they were able to solve the different problems.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar | Resource Student Links: Activity Guide

### Lesson 2: Patterns and Representation

#### Unplugged

- Warm Up (10 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 mins)

This lesson looks closer at what is needed to create a system of representation. Groups create systems that can represent any letter in the alphabet using only a single stack of cards. They then create messages with their systems and exchange with other groups to ensure the system worked as intended. Finally, the class discusses commonalities between working systems while recognizing that there are many possible working solutions.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar | Manipulative Student Links: Activity Guide

### Lesson 3: ASCII and Binary Representation

#### Unplugged

- Warm Up (5 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 mins)

This lesson introduces students to a formal binary system for encoding information: the ASCII system for representing letters and other characters. At the beginning of the lesson, the teacher introduces the fact that computers must represent information using either "on" or "off." The class then learns about the ASCII system for representing text using binary symbols and practices using this system. Finally, they encode their own messages using ASCII.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide

## Week 2

### Lesson 5: Representing Numbers

- Warm Up (10 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 min)
- Extension (10 mins)

This lesson introduces students to the binary number system. With a set of cards that represent the place values in a binary (base-2) number system, the class turns bits "on" or "off" by turning cards face up and face down, then observes the numbers that result from these different patterns. Eventually, the pattern is extended to a generic 4-bit system.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide | Manipulative

### Lesson 6: Keeping Data Secret

- Warm Up (5 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (5 mins)

Students have a discussion on the different levels of security they would like for personal data. Once the class has developed an understanding of the importance of privacy, they learn about the process of encrypting information by enciphering a note for a partner and deciphering the partner's note. The class concludes with a discussion about the importance of both physical and digital security.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide

### Lesson 7: Combining Representations

#### Unplugged

- Warm Up (10 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (5 mins)

This lesson combines all three types of binary representation systems (ASCII characters, binary numbers, and images) to explore ways to encode more complex types of information in a record. After seeing a series of bits and being asked to decode them, students are introduced to the idea that understanding binary information requires an understanding of both the system that is being used, and the meaning of the information encoded.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide | Reference

### Lesson 8: Create a Representation

#### Unplugged | Project

- Warm Up (5 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 mins)

The class designs structures to represent their perfect day using the binary representation systems they've learned in this chapter. After deciding which pieces of information the record should capture, students decide how a punch card of bytes of information will be interpreted to represent those pieces of information. Afterwards, they use the ASCII, binary number, and image formats they have learned to represent their perfect days and try to decipher what a partner's perfect day is like.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplars Student Links: Rubric | Reflection | Project Guide

## Chapter Commentary

This chapter focuses on data representation and its role in solving information problems. Students learn what a representation system needs to be useful, and how computers are able to represent different types of information using binary systems. For the chapter project, students represent their perfect day in a binary punch card and trade with classmates to decipher.

## Chapter 2: Solving Data Problems

### Big Questions

- How does data help us to solve problems?
- How do computers and humans use data differently?
- What parts of the data problem solving process can be automated?
- What kinds of problems do computers use data to solve in the real world?

## Week 3

### Lesson 9: Problem Solving and Data

#### Unplugged

- Warm up (5 mins)
- Problem Solving with Data (70 min)
- Wrap Up

This lesson covers how the problem solving process can be tailored to deal with data problems. The class is tasked with deciding what a city most needs to spend resources on. They must find and use data from the internet to support their decision.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide

### Lesson 10: Problem Solving with Big Data

- Warm Up (5 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 mins)

This lesson covers how data is collected and used by organizations to solve problems in the real world. Students look at three scenarios that could be solved using data and brainstorm the types of data they would want to use to solve each problem, as well as strategies they could use to collect the data. Each scenario also includes a video about a real-world service that has solved a similar problem with data.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide

## Week 4

### Lesson 12: Making Decisions with Data

#### Unplugged

- Warm Up (5 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 mins)

This lesson gives students a chance to practice the data problem solving process introduced in the last lesson. Not all questions have right answers, and in some cases the class can and should decide that they need to collect more data. The lesson concludes with a discussion about how different people could draw different conclusions from the same data, and how collecting different data might have affected the decisions they made.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide

### Lesson 13: Interpreting Data

- Warm Up (10 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (5 mins)

Students begin the lesson by looking at a cake preference survey where respondents specified both a cake and an icing flavor. They discuss how knowing the relationship between cake and icing preference helps them better decide which combination to recommend. Students are then introduced to cross tabulation, which allows them to graph relationships to different preferences. They use this technique to find relationships in a preference survey, then brainstorm the different types of problems that this process could help solve.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Activity Guide | Resource

### Lesson 14: Automating Data Decisions

- Warm Up (5 mins)
- Activity (40 mins)
- Wrap Up (5 mins)

In this lesson, the class looks at a simple example of how a computer could be used to complete the decision making step of the data problem solving process. Students are given the task of creating an algorithm that suggests a vacation spot. They then create rules, or an algorithm, that a computer could use to make this decision automatically. Students share their rules and what choices their rules would make with the class data. Next, they use data from their classmates to test whether their rules would make the same decision that a person would. The lesson concludes with a discussion about the benefits and drawbacks of using computers to automate the data problem solving process.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplar Student Links: Resource | Activity Guide

## Week 5

### Lesson 15: Project - Make a Recommendation

#### Project

- Warm Up (10 mins)
- Activity (150 mins)
- Wrap Up (10 mins)
- Programming Extension (120 mins)

To conclude this unit, the class designs ways to use data to make recommendations or predictions to help solve a problem. In the first several steps, students brainstorm problems, perform simple research, and define a problem of their choosing. They then decide what kind of data they want to collect, how it could be collected, and how it could be used, before exchanging feedback and giving a final presentation.

#### Teacher Links: Exemplars Student Links: Peer Review | Rubric | Reflection | Project Guide

## Chapter Commentary

Students explore how data can be used to answer interesting questions and solve problems. Using a modified version of the general Problem Solving Process, students look at how computers and humans use data differently and the pros and cons of automating problem solving. After learning ways that computers use data in the real world, students choose their own problem and use data to address it.