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## Unit 1 - Digital Information

### Lesson 1: Welcome to CSP

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**IC** - Impacts of Computing

**3B-IC-27**- Predict how computational innovations that have revolutionized aspects of our culture might evolve.

### Lesson 2: Representing Information

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**AP** - Algorithms & Programming

**3A-AP-21**- Evaluate and refine computational artifacts to make them more usable and accessible.

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**2-DA-07**- Represent data using multiple encoding schemes.**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

### Lesson 3: Circle Square Patterns

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

### Lesson 4: Binary Numbers

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.A** - Explain how data can be represented using bits.

**DAT-1.A.2**- Computing devices represent data digitally, meaning that the lowest-level components of any value are bits.**DAT-1.A.3**- Bit is shorthand for binary digit and is either 0 or 1.**DAT-1.A.4**- A byte is 8 bits.

**DAT-1.C** - For binary numbers: a. Calculate the binary (base 2) equivalent of a positive integer (base 10) and vice versa. b. Compare and order binary numbers.

**DAT-1.C.1**- Number bases, including binary and decimal, are used to represent data.**DAT-1.C.2**- Binary (base 2) uses only combinations of the digits zero and one.**DAT-1.C.3**- Decimal (base 10) uses only combinations of the digits 0 – 9.**DAT-1.C.4**- As with decimal, a digit’s position in the binary sequence determines its numeric value. The numeric value is equal to the bit’s value (0 or 1) multiplied by the place value of its position.**DAT-1.C.5**- The place value of each position is determined by the base raised to the power of the position. Positions are numbered starting at the rightmost position with 0 and increasing by 1 for each subsequent position to the left.

### Lesson 5: Overflow and Rounding

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.B** - Explain the consequences of using bits to represent data.

**DAT-1.B.1**- In many programming languages, integers are represented by a fixed number of bits, which limits the range of integer values and mathematical operations on those values. This limitation can result in overflow or other errors.**DAT-1.B.2**- Other programming languages provide an abstraction through which the size of representable integers is limited only by the size of the computer's memory; this is the case for the language defined in the exam reference sheet.**DAT-1.B.3**- In programming languages, the fixed number of bits used to represent real numbers limits the range and mathematical operations on these values; this limitation can result in round-off and other errors. Some real numbers are represented as approximations i

### Lesson 6: Representing Text

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**AP** - Algorithms & Programming

**3A-AP-21**- Evaluate and refine computational artifacts to make them more usable and accessible.

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.A** - Explain how data can be represented using bits.

**DAT-1.A.5**- Abstraction is the process of reducing complexity by focusing on the main idea. By hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand and bringing together related and useful details, abstraction reduces complexity and allows one to focus on the idea.**DAT-1.A.6**- Bits are grouped to represent abstractions. These abstractions include, but are not limited to, numbers, characters, and color.**DAT-1.A.7**- The same sequence of bits may represent different types of data in different contexts.

### Lesson 7: Black and White Images

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**CS** - Computing Systems

**3A-CS-02**- Compare levels of abstraction and interactions between application software, system software and hardware layers.

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**2-DA-07**- Represent data using multiple encoding schemes.**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.A** - Explain how data can be represented using bits.

**DAT-1.A.10**- Analog data can be closely approximated digitally using a sampling technique, which means measuring values of the analog signal at regular intervals called samples. The samples are measured to figure out the exact bits required to store each sample.**DAT-1.A.7**- The same sequence of bits may represent different types of data in different contexts.**DAT-1.A.8**- Analog data have values that change smoothly, rather than in discrete intervals, over time. Some examples of analog data include pitch and volume of music, colors of a painting, or position of a sprinter during a race.

### Lesson 8: Color Images

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**CS** - Computing Systems

**3A-CS-02**- Compare levels of abstraction and interactions between application software, system software and hardware layers.

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**2-DA-07**- Represent data using multiple encoding schemes.**3A-DA-09**- Translate between different bit representations of real-world phenomena, such as characters, numbers, and images.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.A** - Explain how data can be represented using bits.

**DAT-1.A.9**- The use of digital data to approximate real-world analog data is an example of abstraction.

### Lesson 9: Lossless Compression

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**3A-DA-10**- Evaluate the tradeoffs in how data elements are organized and where data is stored.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.D** - Compare data compression algorithms to determine which is best in a particular context.

**DAT-1.D.1**- Data compression can reduce the size (number of bits) of transmitted or stored data.**DAT-1.D.2**- Fewer bits does not necessarily mean less information.**DAT-1.D.3**- The amount of size reduction from compression depends on both the amount of redundancy in the original data representation and the compression algorithm applied.**DAT-1.D.4**- Lossless data compression algorithms can usually reduce the number of bits stored or transmitted while guaranteeing complete reconstruction of the original data.

### Lesson 10: Lossy Compression

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**DA** - Data & Analysis

**3A-DA-10**- Evaluate the tradeoffs in how data elements are organized and where data is stored.

#### CSP2021

**DAT-1** - The way that the computer represents data is different from the way that the data are interpreted and displayed for the user

**DAT-1.D** - Compare data compression algorithms to determine which is best in a particular context.

**DAT-1.D.5**- Lossy data compression algorithms can significantly reduce the number of bits stored or transmitted but only allow reconstruction of an approximation of the original data.**DAT-1.D.6**- Lossy data compression algorithms can usually reduce the number of bits stored or transmitted more than lossless compression algorithms.**DAT-1.D.7**- In situations where quality or ability to reconstruct the original is maximally important, lossless compression algorithms are typically chosen.**DAT-1.D.8**- In situations where minimizing data size or transmission time is maximally important, lossy compression algorithms are typically chosen.

### Lesson 11: Intellectual Property

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**IC** - Impacts of Computing

**3A-IC-28**- Explain the beneficial and harmful effects that intellectual property laws can have on innovation.

#### CSP2021

**IOC-1** - While computing innovations are typically designed to achieve a specific purpose, they may have unintended consequences

**IOC-1.F** - Explain how the use of computing could raise legal and ethical concerns.

**IOC-1.F.1**- Material created on a computer is the intellectual property of the creator or an organization.**IOC-1.F.2**- Ease of access and distribution of digitized information raises intellectual property concerns regarding ownership, value, and use.**IOC-1.F.3**- Measures should be taken to safeguard intellectual property.**IOC-1.F.4**- The use of material created by someone else without permission and presented as one’s own is plagiarism and may have legal consequences.**IOC-1.F.5**- Some examples of legal ways to use materials created by someone else include:● Creative Commons—a public copyright license that enables the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. This is used when the content creator wants to give othe**IOC-1.F.6**- The use of material created by someone other than you should always be cited.**IOC-1.F.7**- Creative commons, open source, and open access have enabled broad access to digital information.

### Lesson 12: Project - Digital Information Dilemmas Part 1

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**IC** - Impacts of Computing

**2-IC-20**- Compare tradeoffs associated with computing technologies that affect people's everyday activities and career options.**3A-IC-24**- Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.**3A-IC-28**- Explain the beneficial and harmful effects that intellectual property laws can have on innovation.

### Lesson 13: Project - Digital Information Dilemmas Part 2

#### Standards Alignment

#### CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

**IC** - Impacts of Computing

**2-IC-20**- Compare tradeoffs associated with computing technologies that affect people's everyday activities and career options.**3A-IC-24**- Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices.**3A-IC-28**- Explain the beneficial and harmful effects that intellectual property laws can have on innovation.