CS Principles 2018

Standards Alignment

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AP Create PT Prep

Lesson 1: Create PT - Review the Task

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

1.1 - Creative development can be an essential process for creating computational artifacts.
1.1.1 - Apply a creative development process when creating computational artifacts. [P2]
  • 1.1.1B - Creating computational artifacts employs an iterative and often exploratory process to translate ideas into tangible form.
1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
  • 1.2.4A - A collaboratively created computational artifact reflects effort by more than one person.
  • 1.2.4B - Effective collaborative teams consider the use of online collaborative tools.
  • 1.2.4C - Effective collaborative teams practice interpersonal communication, consensus building, conflict resolution, and negotiation.
  • 1.2.4D - Effective collaboration strategies enhance performance.
  • 1.2.4E - Collaboration facilitates the application of multiple perspectives (including sociocultural perspectives) and diverse talents and skills in developing computational artifacts.
  • 1.2.4F - A collaboratively created computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas.
5.1 - Programs can be developed for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, to create new knowledge, or to solve problems (to help people, organizations, or society).
5.1.2 - Develop a correct program to solve problems. [P2]
  • 5.1.2A - An iterative process of program development helps in developing a correct program to solve problems.
5.1.3 - Collaborate to develop a program. [P6]
  • 5.1.3A - Collaboration can decrease the size and complexity of tasks required of individual programmers.
  • 5.1.3B - Collaboration facilitates multiple perspectives in developing ideas for solving problems by programming.
  • 5.1.3C - Collaboration in the iterative development of a program requires different skills than developing a program alone.
  • 5.1.3D - Collaboration can make it easier to find and correct errors when developing programs.
  • 5.1.3E - Collaboration facilitates developing program components independently.
  • 5.1.3F - Effective communication between participants is required for successful collaboration when developing programs.

Lesson 2: Create PT - Make a Plan

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
1.2.1 - Create a computational artifact for creative expression. [P2]
  • 1.2.1A - A computational artifact is anything created by a human using a computer and can be, but is not limited to, a program, an image, audio, video, a presentation, or a web page file.
  • 1.2.1B - Creating computational artifacts requires understanding and using software tools and services.
  • 1.2.1E - Creative expressions in a computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas or interests.
1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
  • 1.2.4C - Effective collaborative teams practice interpersonal communication, consensus building, conflict resolution, and negotiation.
  • 1.2.4D - Effective collaboration strategies enhance performance.
  • 1.2.4E - Collaboration facilitates the application of multiple perspectives (including sociocultural perspectives) and diverse talents and skills in developing computational artifacts.
  • 1.2.4F - A collaboratively created computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas.
7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
7.5.1 - Access, manage, and attribute information using effective strategies. [P1]
  • 7.5.1A - Online databases and libraries catalog and house secondary and some primary resources
  • 7.5.1B - Advanced search tools, Boolean logic, and key words can refine the search focus and/or limit search results based on a variety of factors (e.g., peer-review status, type of publication)
  • 7.5.1C - Plagiarism is a serious offense that occurs when a person presents another's ideas or words as his or her own. Plagiarism may be avoided by accurately acknowledging sources. 7.5.2 Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility [P5]
7.5.2 - Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility [P5]
  • 7.5.2A - Determining the credibility of a soruce requires considering and evaluating the reputation and credentials of the author(s), publisher(s), site owner(s), and/or sponsor(s).
  • 7.5.2B - Information from a source is considered relevant when it supports an appropriate claim or the purpose of the investigation

Lesson 3: Create PT - Complete the Task (12 hrs)

Standards Alignment

Computer Science Principles

1.2 - Computing enables people to use creative development processes to create computational artifacts for creative expression or to solve a problem.
1.2.1 - Create a computational artifact for creative expression. [P2]
  • 1.2.1A - A computational artifact is anything created by a human using a computer and can be, but is not limited to, a program, an image, audio, video, a presentation, or a web page file.
  • 1.2.1B - Creating computational artifacts requires understanding and using software tools and services.
  • 1.2.1C - Computing tools and techniques are used to create computational artifacts and can include, but are not limited to, programming IDEs, spreadsheets, 3D printers, or text editors.
  • 1.2.1D - A creatively developed computational artifact can be created by using nontraditional, nonprescribed computing techniques.
  • 1.2.1E - Creative expressions in a computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas or interests.
1.2.2 - Create a computational artifact using computing tools and techniques to solve a problem. [P2]
  • 1.2.2A - Computing tools and techniques can enhance the process of finding a solution to a problem.
  • 1.2.2B - A creative development process for creating computational artifacts can be used to solve problems when traditional or prescribed computing techniques are not effective.
1.2.3 - Create a new computational artifact by combining or modifying existing artifacts. [P2]
  • 1.2.3A - Creating computational artifacts can be done by combining and modifying existing artifacts or by creating new artifacts.
  • 1.2.3B - Computation facilitates the creation and modification of computational artifacts with enhanced detail and precision.
  • 1.2.3C - Combining or modifying existing artifacts can show personal expression of ideas.
1.2.4 - Collaborate in the creation of computational artifacts. [P6]
  • 1.2.4A - A collaboratively created computational artifact reflects effort by more than one person.
  • 1.2.4B - Effective collaborative teams consider the use of online collaborative tools.
  • 1.2.4C - Effective collaborative teams practice interpersonal communication, consensus building, conflict resolution, and negotiation.
  • 1.2.4D - Effective collaboration strategies enhance performance.
  • 1.2.4E - Collaboration facilitates the application of multiple perspectives (including sociocultural perspectives) and diverse talents and skills in developing computational artifacts.
  • 1.2.4F - A collaboratively created computational artifact can reflect personal expressions of ideas.
2.2 - Multiple levels of abstraction are used to write programs or create other computational artifacts
2.2.1 - Develop an abstraction when writing a program or creating other computational artifacts. [P2]
  • 2.2.1A - The process of developing an abstraction involves removing detail and generalizing functionality.
  • 2.2.1B - An abstraction extracts common features from specific examples in order to generalize concepts.
  • 2.2.1C - An abstraction generalizes functionality with input parameters that allow software reuse.
2.2.2 - Use multiple levels of abstraction to write programs. [P3]
  • 2.2.2A - Software is developed using multiple levels of abstractions, such as constants, expressions, statements, procedures, and libraries.
  • 2.2.2B - Being aware of and using multiple levels of abstraction in developing programs helps to more effectively apply available resources and tools to solve problems.
4.1 - Algorithms are precise sequences of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages.
4.1.1 - Develop an algorithm for implementation in a program. [P2]
  • 4.1.1A - Sequencing, selection, and iteration are building blocks of algorithms.
  • 4.1.1B - Sequencing is the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the statements are given.
  • 4.1.1C - Selection uses a Boolean condition to determine which of two parts of an algorithm is used.
  • 4.1.1D - Iteration is the repetition of part of an algorithm until a condition is met or for a specified number of times.
  • 4.1.1E - Algorithms can be combined to make new algorithms.
  • 4.1.1F - Using existing correct algorithms as building blocks for constructing a new algorithm helps ensure the new algorithm is correct.
  • 4.1.1G - Knowledge of standard algorithms can help in constructing new algorithms.
  • 4.1.1H - Different algorithms can be developed to solve the same problem.
  • 4.1.1I - Developing a new algorithm to solve a problem can yield insight into the problem.
4.1.2 - Express an algorithm in a language. [P5]
  • 4.1.2A - Languages for algorithms include natural language, pseudocode, and visual and textual programming languages.
  • 4.1.2B - Natural language and pseudocode describe algorithms so that humans can understand them.
  • 4.1.2C - Algorithms described in programming languages can be executed on a computer.
  • 4.1.2D - Different languages are better suited for expressing different algorithms.
  • 4.1.2E - Some programming languages are designed for specific domains and are better for expressing algorithms in those domains.
  • 4.1.2F - The language used to express an algorithm can affect characteristics such as clarity or readability but not whether an algorithmic solution exists.
  • 4.1.2G - Every algorithm can be constructed using only sequencing, selection, and iteration.
  • 4.1.2H - Nearly all programming languages are equivalent in terms of being able to express any algorithm.
  • 4.1.2I - Clarity and readability are important considerations when expressing an algorithm in a language.
5.1 - Programs can be developed for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, to create new knowledge, or to solve problems (to help people, organizations, or society).
5.1.1 - Develop a program for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, or to create new knowledge. [P2]
  • 5.1.1A - Programs are developed and used in a variety of ways by a wide range of people depending on the goals of the programmer.
  • 5.1.1B - Programs developed for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, or to create new knowledge may have visual, audible, or tactile inputs and outputs.
  • 5.1.1C - Programs developed for creative expression, to satisfy personal curiosity, or to create new knowledge may be developed with different standards or methods than programs developed for widespread distribution.
  • 5.1.1D - Additional desired outcomes may be realized independently of the original purpose of the program.
  • 5.1.1E - A computer program or the results of running a program may be rapidly shared with a large number of users and can have widespread impact on individuals, organizations, and society
  • 5.1.1F - Advances in computing have generated and increased creativity in other fields.
5.1.2 - Develop a correct program to solve problems. [P2]
  • 5.1.2A - An iterative process of program development helps in developing a correct program to solve problems.
  • 5.1.2B - Developing correct program components and then combining them helps in creating correct programs.
  • 5.1.2C - Incrementally adding tested program segments to correct, working programs helps create large correct programs.
  • 5.1.2D - Program documentation helps programmers develop and maintain correct programs to efficiently solve problems.
  • 5.1.2E - Documentation about program components, such as blocks and procedures, helps in developing and maintaining programs.
  • 5.1.2F - Documentation helps in developing and maintaining programs when working individually or in collaborative programming environments
  • 5.1.2G - Program development includes identifying programmer and user concerns that affect the solution to problems.
  • 5.1.2H - Consultation and communication with program users is an important aspect of program development to solve problems.
  • 5.1.2I - A programmer’s knowledge and skill affects how a program is developed and how it is used to solve a problem.
  • 5.1.2J - A programmer designs, implements, tests, debugs, and maintains programs when solving problems.
5.1.3 - Collaborate to develop a program. [P6]
  • 5.1.3A - Collaboration can decrease the size and complexity of tasks required of individual programmers.
  • 5.1.3B - Collaboration facilitates multiple perspectives in developing ideas for solving problems by programming.
  • 5.1.3C - Collaboration in the iterative development of a program requires different skills than developing a program alone.
  • 5.1.3D - Collaboration can make it easier to find and correct errors when developing programs.
  • 5.1.3E - Collaboration facilitates developing program components independently.
  • 5.1.3F - Effective communication between participants is required for successful collaboration when developing programs.
5.2 - People write programs to execute algorithms.
5.2.1 - Explain how programs implement algorithms. [P3]
  • 5.2.1A - Algorithms are implemented using program instructions that are processed during program execution.
  • 5.2.1B - Program instructions are executed sequentially.
  • 5.2.1C - Program instructions may involve variables that are initialized and updated, read, and written
  • 5.2.1D - An understanding of instruction processing and program execution is useful for programming.
  • 5.2.1E - Program execution automates processes.
  • 5.2.1F - Processes use memory, a central processing unit (CPU), and input and output.
  • 5.2.1G - A process may execute by itself or with other processes.
  • 5.2.1H - A process may execute on one or several CPUs.
  • 5.2.1I - Executable programs increase the scale of problems that can be addressed.
  • 5.2.1J - Simple algorithms can solve a large set of problems when automated.
  • 5.2.1K - Improvements in algorithms, hardware, and software increase the kinds of problems and the size of problems solvable by programming.
5.3 - Programming is facilitated by appropriate abstractions.
5.3.1 - Use abstraction to manage complexity in programs. [P3]
  • 5.3.1A - Procedures are reusable programming abstractions.
  • 5.3.1B - A function is a named grouping of programming instructions.
  • 5.3.1C - Procedures reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs.
  • 5.3.1D - Procedures have names and may have parameters and return values.
  • 5.3.1E - Parameterization can generalize a specific solution.
  • 5.3.1F - Parameters generalize a solution by allowing a function to be used instead of duplicated code
  • 5.3.1G - Parameters provide different values as input to procedures when they are called in a program.
  • 5.3.1H - Data abstraction provides a means of separating behavior from implementation.
  • 5.3.1I - Strings and string operations, including concatenation and some form of substring, are common in many programs.
  • 5.3.1J - Integers and floatingpoint numbers are used in programs without requiring understanding of how they are implemented.
  • 5.3.1K - Lists and list operations, such as add, remove, and search, are common in many programs.
  • 5.3.1L - Using lists and procedures as abstractions in programming can result in programs that are easier to develop and maintain.
  • 5.3.1M - Application program interfaces (APIs) and libraries simplify complex programming tasks.
  • 5.3.1N - Documentation for an API/library is an important aspect of programming.
  • 5.3.1O - APIs connect software components, allowing them to communicate.
5.4 - Programs are developed, maintained, and used by people for different purposes.
5.4.1 - Evaluate the correctness of a program. [P4]
  • 5.4.1A - Program style can affect the determination of program correctness.
  • 5.4.1B - Duplicated code can make it harder to reason about a program.
  • 5.4.1C - Meaningful names for variables and procedures help people better understand programs.
  • 5.4.1D - Longer code blocks are harder to reason about than shorter code blocks in a program.
  • 5.4.1E - Locating and correcting errors in a program is called debugging the program.
  • 5.4.1F - Knowledge of what a program is supposed to do is required in order to find most program errors.
  • 5.4.1G - Examples of intended behavior on specific inputs help people understand what a program is supposed to do.
  • 5.4.1H - Visual displays (or different modalities) of program state can help in finding errors.
  • 5.4.1I - Programmers justify and explain a program’s correctness.
  • 5.4.1J - Justification can include a written explanation about how a program meets its specifications.
  • 5.4.1K - Correctness of a program depends on correctness of program components, including code blocks and procedures.
  • 5.4.1L - An explanation of a program helps people understand the functionality and purpose of it.
  • 5.4.1M - The functionality of a program is often described by how a user interacts with it.
  • 5.4.1N - The functionality of a program is best described at a high level by what the program does, not at the lower level of how the program statements work to accomplish this.
5.5 - Programming uses mathematical and logical concepts.
5.5.1 - Employ appropriate mathematical and logical concepts in programming. [P1]
  • 5.5.1A - Numbers and numerical concepts are fundamental to programming.
  • 5.5.1B - Integers may be constrained in the maximum and minimum values that can be represented in a program because of storage limitations.
  • 5.5.1C - Real numbers are approximated by floating point representations that do not necessarily have infinite precision.
  • 5.5.1D - Mathematical expressions using arithmetic operators are part of most programming languages.
  • 5.5.1E - Logical concepts and Boolean algebra are fundamental to programming.
  • 5.5.1F - Compound expressions using and, or, and not are part of most programming languages.
  • 5.5.1G - Intuitive and formal reasoning about program components using Boolean concepts helps in developing correct programs.
  • 5.5.1H - Computational methods may use lists and collections to solve problems.
  • 5.5.1I - Lists and other collections can be treated as abstract data types (ADTs) in developing programs.
  • 5.5.1J - Basic operations on collections include adding elements, removing elements, iterating over all elements, and determining whether an element is in a collection.
7.5 - An investigative process is aided by effective organization and selection of resources. Appropriate technologies and tools facilitate the accessing of information and enable the ability to evaluate the credibility of sources.
7.5.1 - Access, manage, and attribute information using effective strategies. [P1]
  • 7.5.1A - Online databases and libraries catalog and house secondary and some primary resources
  • 7.5.1B - Advanced search tools, Boolean logic, and key words can refine the search focus and/or limit search results based on a variety of factors (e.g., peer-review status, type of publication)
  • 7.5.1C - Plagiarism is a serious offense that occurs when a person presents another's ideas or words as his or her own. Plagiarism may be avoided by accurately acknowledging sources. 7.5.2 Evaluate online and print sources for appropriateness and credibility [P5]

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2017)

AP - Algorithms & Programming
  • 3A-AP-16 - Design and iteratively develop computational artifacts for practical intent, personal expression, or to address a societal issue by using events to initiate instructions.
  • 3A-AP-18 - Create artifacts by using procedures within a program, combinations of data and procedures, or independent but interrelated programs.
  • 3A-AP-19 - Systematically design and develop programs for broad audiences by incorporating feedback from users.
  • 3A-AP-21 - Evaluate and refine computational artifacts to make them more usable and accessible.
  • 3A-AP-23 - Document design decisions using text, graphics, presentations, and/or demonstrations in the development of complex programs.
  • 3B-AP-14 - Construct solutions to problems using student-created components, such as procedures, modules and/or objects.